ARTIFACT: Playing cards developed in the 1800s by the U.S. military to help soldiers identify “most-wanted” native Americans. The “Ace of Spades” was Sauk leader Black Hawk (1767-1838), who led resistance in Ouisconsin to U.S. government deceit and forced resettlement. Involvement in Black Hawk’s capture in the 1832 Massacre at Bad Axe did no harm to the post-military careers of white politicians, including presidents Taylor and Lincoln and several governors and senators.


Notes on Drawer Two

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